In 1977, the FDA and the US Department of Agriculture gave the meat industry three months to prove that nitrate and nitrite in bacon caused no harm. “Without a satisfactory response,” Coudray writes, “these additives would have to be replaced 36 months later with non-carcinogenic methods.”

The source of the story was an announcement from the World HealthOrganization that “processed meats” were now classified as a group 1 carcinogen, meaning scientists were certain that there was “sufficient” evidence that they caused cancer, particularly colon cancer. The warning applied not just to British bacon but to Italian salami, Spanish chorizo, German bratwurst and myriad other foods.

( )54.The purpose of the three ads is to .

As summer arrived, the pace picked up for Yuan Qi and his classmates. Almost all classes were now spent looking at past gaokao papers in methodical detail. After school, there were two extra hours of mock exams every day, on top of the homework, and five additional classes on Saturday. On Sundays, Yuan Qi’s parents had arranged private tuition for him in English and Chinese. His only relaxation was playing computer games, but whereas in middle school he had enjoyed complex online roleplayers, now he only had time for smartphone apps.


Hello. It’s another busy day at the offices of Tip Top Trading…

The next morning, Good Morning America called.

A.culture and art B.industry and farming

With so much to gain or lose, cheating is a big problem. Spy cameras, radio devices and earpieces that transmit questions and receive answers have been found hidden in jewellery, spectacles, wallets, pens, rulers and underwear. Most examination rooms install CCTV cameras, and some use metal detectors. Last year, police busted a syndicate in Jiangxi province, where professional exam-takers were charging parents up to a million yuan (£121,300) to pose as students. In Luoyang, a city in Henan province, examiners deployed a drone to hover above school buildings and scan for radio signals sent in or out. Fingerprint and iris-matching has been used to verify the identity of students. Exam papers are escorted to schools by security guards and monitored with GPS trackers, while the examiners who draft them are kept under close scrutiny in order to avoid leaks. This year, new regulations came into effect that could sentence cheats to up to seven years in prison.

Yuan Qi often asked me what school was like in the UK. I swallowed my guilt as I mumbled something about less homework and bad food. One afternoon he used a term, qiutubeilun, which I didn’t understand. I looked it up on my phone: “prisoners’ dilemma”, the famous paradox about mutual competition despite the benefits of cooperation. “If every [student] agreed to take it more easy, and pursue their own interests and hobbies, then the competition wouldn’t be so intense,” he said. “But they would rather sacrifice that free time and spend all their time studying to have a greater chance of getting a high mark, and so everyone has to follow.”

Cossman brought a scientist to emphasize that this was for real and not just another volcano LARPing adventure: Harvard microbiologist Jeffrey Marlow, a NASA consultant and extremophiles specialist who borrowed a prototype Mars 2020 Rover tool he’d built to scan the microbial communities on freshly hardened lava—essentially the newest earth on Earth—and watch how life begins in real time.

As one journalist wrote in Wired, “Perhaps no two words together are more likely to set the internet aflame than BACON and CANCER.” The BBC website announced, matter-of-factly, that “Processed meats do cause cancer”, while the Sun went with “Banger out of Order” and “Killer in the Kitchen”.

( )55.According to the passage,which one did not go to the island for a vacation?

This caution has kept us as consumers unnecessarily in the dark. Consider sausages. For years, I believed that the unhealthiest part in a cooked English breakfast was the sausage, rather than the bacon.

( )63.The sound of a coin dropping makes people .

Halsey liked Cossman immediately. He just had a gut feeling. “He’s so energetic that you’re like, ‘He can’t actually be for real.’ He’s almost an avatar of something that’s real,” Halsey says. When he told his team about the conversation, there was a little hesitation. “Some of them were like, ‘Is this guy full of shit?’ I said that he has the foresight to ask us to help, so I’m giving him the benefit of the doubt that he knows his strengths and weaknesses.”

But soon the meat lobby came up with a cleverer form of diversion. The AMI – the American Meat Institute – started to make the argument that the nitrate was only there for the consumer’s own safety, to ward off botulism – a potentially fatal toxin sometimes produced by poorly preserved foods. The scientific director of the AMI argued that a single cup of botulism would be enough to wipe out every human on the planet. So, far from harming lives, bacon was actually saving them.

D.Because he didn’t care about anyone else.

M:There was too much fighting in the film for me,but Tom liked it very much.

16. How can David find the most important information to write down?

One impromptu descent into the fiery maw of Mother Earth, naturally, begets another. Cossman followed his first Vanuatu trip with a second one, this time with some sponsors and better equipment, including VR cameras, biometric sensors, and a small flock of drones donated by DJI, most of which got cooked to death, but not before capturing enough footage to create the first-ever 3-D map of a volcano’s crater.

In three days, Cossman is leaving for a month in Africa to do research for yet another of his big projects—an anti-poaching effort called Amplify—and he’s in Silicon Valley crossing items off of his action list before boarding a plane for the Congo, where he’ll finally take his extremely patient girlfriend to see those gorillas. Cossman spent the morning at Google X, Alphabet’s R&D arm, talking about possible collaborations and then stopped by Calvert’s office to discuss some tests Qwake would do at Menlo’s training facility with a C-THRU prototype in January.

“Yeah, it's a natural question,” he replies. “And I think, at the core of it, it's a certain level of comfort with risk. Being willing to take that leap. Basically, to jump off the cliff and build a parachute on the way down—no pun intended, for our space project,” by which he means Quantum Leap, the most ambitious Qwake venture of all.

And until today I know that I am still a bad piano player,a bad painter.And not a very successful producer.But I love to be a positive pessimist.And I know nothing can stop me being better.

There, to sweeten the package, Cossman will capture compelling footage of himself shadowing rangers and nuzzling rhino babies, having already used his many newfound, sometimes improbable connections to arrange meetings with park rangers, anti-poaching activists, government officials in three countries (Congo, Kenya, and South Africa), and, he hoped, famed paleoanthropologist Richard Leakey. Cossman’s solar system, like the universe, is ever-expanding.

A minute passed in agonising silence. Then it came, with no gloss.

In his book, Coudray points out that in coming years, millions more poor consumers will be affected by preventable colon cancer, as westernised processed meats conquer the developing world.

W:Sounds terrible.Pollution always causes so many problems.

4.M:I want to give Tony an iPhone 5 for his birthday.What about you,Jane?


M: Then you may see the films a bit later than other people.

B. Look through the notes from last class.

“It was a technical glitch,” Cossman says, with an impish grin. “It was not designed to be a cliffhanger.”

In an ideal world, we would all be eating diets lower in meat, processed or otherwise, for the sake of sustainability and animal welfare as much as health. But in the world we actually live in, processed meats are still a normal, staple protein for millions of people who can’t afford to swap a value pack of frying bacon for a few slivers of Prosciutto di Parma. Around half of all meat eaten in developed countries is now processed, according to researcher John Kearney, making it a far more universal habit than smoking.

Charles Perry, Off the eaten track: Alan Davidson;

The bacon lobby has also found surprising allies among the natural foods brigade. Type “nitrate cancer bacon” into Google, and you will find a number of healthy eating articles, some of them written by advocates of the “Paleo” diet, arguing that bacon is actually a much-maligned health food.

9. What must have caused the speakers’ stomach aches?

There was a little cafe I used to go to that did the best bacon sandwiches. They came in a soft and pillowy white bap. The bacon, thick-cut from a local butcher, was midway between crispy and chewy. Ketchup and HP sauce were served in miniature jars with the sandwich, so you could dab on the exact amount you liked. That was all there was to it: just bread and bacon and sauce. Eating one of these sandwiches, as I did every few weeks, with a cup of strong coffee, felt like an uncomplicated pleasure.

Over the three days we spent together, the only time he chafed, and then only slightly, was when I implied that one of his underlying motivations seemed to be a quest for adventure. We were talking about Quantum Leap, a venture that—should it actually happen—will require him to bail out of a perfectly good rocket and crash through the atmosphere like a meteorite. “It’s less about doing something no one’s done. It’s not about breaking a record. That’s as far from my motivations as you can get,” he says. “I have zero desire to be adrenaline junkie. I’m not a stuntman. That’s not why I do what I do. This is a purpose-driven idea.”

( )58.What can we learn from the passage?